Complications of the placenta during pregnancy

What is the placenta?

The placenta is a flower-shaped organ that stays in the mother’s womb during pregnancy and acts as a means of contact with the child. It separates the blood vessels of the pregnancy from the mother’s bloodstream. The body of the womb does not become suitable for all the activities of the body; It is attached to the child through the pulse.

the placenta is the womb protection or support system in the mother’s womb. If the placenta does not work properly, the chances of a child’s health risk increase. The placenta provides oxygen and essential nutrients to the baby of the womb and helps to clear the blood from the blood of the baby. It is a flat and somewhat circular organ adjoining the uterine wall which is attached to the fetus through the baby’s nose (umbilical cord).

What is the function of the placenta?

Transporting nutrients from the mother’s body to the baby’s body

Oxygen and food are transmitted from the blood to the mother. From there, giving oxygen and food to the baby through the pulse.

Removes waste from the baby’s body

Babies don’t have bowel movements so any waste products from baby’s blood go back through the placenta for you to process out of your body. However, your baby’s kidneys do make urine and this is expelled into your uterus in the form of amniotic fluid. This is also filtered out through baby’s kidneys and blood. Any waste from amniotic fluid is sent back through the placenta.

Hormones

The placenta is responsible for producing hormones to maintain the actual pregnancy. Here is the list of hormones it produces and what they do:

  • Lactogen (Increases glucose in your blood to nourish baby)
  • Estrogen/Progesterone (Prevents the uterus from contracting)
  • Placental Growth Hormone (Increases the growth of the placenta to distribute more nutrients as the baby grows)

Protects from infection

In childbirth, the pregnant women protect the child from infection. It can protect the child from most bacteria. But it can not protect the child from viruses. For example, if the mother is suffering from her (Gorgian mizels), and if the mother’s body is not resistant to the rubella virus, then it can go beyond the pregnancy and go to the body of the baby and it can lead to abortion, death of mother, birth of childbirth, birth defects such as deafness, Children may be born with problems related to brain damage, heart problems, cataracts, etc.

Makes the path for antibodies

In the last stage of pregnancy, the pregnant woman gives birth to the antibodies from the mother’s body to the body, giving it immunity to the child for up to three months after birth. However, it only provides those antibodies that cross the mother’s body.

Complications That Can Affect The Placenta

Problems that are most likely to occur during pregnancy are Holl-

  • Placenta previa
  • Placenta Accreta
  • Placental Abortion
  • Placental Insufficiency

Any problems with placenta can cause complications during pregnancy and it can be dangerous for the mother.

Placenta previa

Early in pregnancy, the placenta can grow in the bottom half of the uterus near the cervix. This condition is known as, placenta previa. It can cause bleeding and cramping in the second to last trimester. If it is a mild or “marginal” case it does not actually cover the cervix and may creep up as the uterus stretches upward. In partial cases, it may cover some of the cervical openings, and complete placenta previa can cover the entire cervix. Doctors monitor this with ultrasounds and if the placenta does not migrate up off the cervix, a cesarean delivery may be necessary.

Placenta Accreta

Sometimes the placenta can grow to deep in the wall of the uterus. It usually occurs in moms who have had cesarean deliveries in the past. This may cause severe bleeding before, during, and after delivery. Delivery is usually by cesarean section, and bleeding will be watched after your baby is born. There is a slight chance of hysterectomy if bleeding is too severe.

Placental Abortion

This is the most serious complication that can happen with the placenta and is a medical emergency. The placenta detaches from the wall of the uterus and cuts off the blood supply to the baby. It can also cause a severe hemorrhage in the mother. If the pregnancy has progressed to the late second trimester or third trimester, the baby will be delivered by an emergency c-section.

Placental Insufficiency

There are cases where the placenta is unable to provide all the needed oxygen and nutrients to the baby. It can cause your baby to be smaller than expected. This usually happens due to health conditions like; hypertension, smoking, kidney disease, and diabetes. Doctors will watch your baby’s growth, and possibly induce labor early.

There are certain risk factors for problems with the placenta including:

  • High Blood Pressure/Preeclampsia
  • Falls or Trauma
  • Multiple Cesarean Section Deliveries
  • Multiple Uterine Surgeries
  • Using Street Drugs
  • Blood Clotting Disorders
  • Advanced Maternal Age

 

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